In the microelectronics industry the particles affecting the cleanliness of the manufacturing area and the products are measured in nanometres (nm) At present, particles > 50nm can destroy the structure widths used by the microelectronics industry to manufacture microchips. In comparison, a human hair has a width of 50 microns (=50,000 nanometres).
This makes it particularly relevant to reduce or prevent particles in the production process and thus increase the yield in microchip manufacturing. The requirements on cleanliness technology in microelectronics increase every year because integration densities and structure widths are becoming smaller and smaller.
It should also be mentioned that problems include not only particles that can be measured by conventional methods, but also gas molecules found in the air that can settle on the extremely sensitive electronic parts. This includes gases like ammonia, which are used in the production process, as well as gases emitted by materials like PVC wiring.
Manufacturing equipment and materials that are brought into clean rooms today must often be manufactured under clean room conditions themselves. In the future, suppliers to the semiconductor industry will be increasingly required to install clean rooms if they do not already have them. They will additionally need to use improved materials and optimize their packaging and cleaning processes.